Speed – Affinity Laws
The following applies:
1. Model law
2. Model law
3. Model law
Q - flow rate
H - delivery head
P - power consumption
n - speed
The indices relate to the respective speed.
The affinity laws apply exactly to frictionless, incompressible flows. For technical applications, they are to be regarded as an approximate solution.
In general, these affinity laws are independent of how the speed change is technically implemented. Traditionally, multi-speed functions of small and medium size pumps are realized by changing the motor windings configurations to achieve stepped speed variations. Meanwhile, these have been largely replaced by frequency converters.
Slow-running electric drives are very expensive for larger centrifugal pumps, so that reduction gears are used for these cases.
Combustion engines are used for some mobile applications. They are also variable in speed within a specified range.