Duty of Pumps

Pumps are processing machines that serve to transport fluids.

In a narrower sense, in contrast to blowers and compressors for gases and compressible media, pumps for incompressible media are referred to as liquid pumps. This means that the volume of the fluid remains approximately constant as the pressure increases. In practice, this also includes liquid mixtures with a low solid or gas content.

In the case of liquid transport, the pressure of the pump is required to overcome the flow resistance that arises in the pipe system, e.g. for the circulation in a heating system.

In addition, in cases of different liquid levels, overcoming the difference in height (Hgeo) is required, e.g. fluid displacement to a higher level ie. to fill and maintain a near constant level in an overhead tank.

More articles on this topic

Curve Corrections for Different Fluids

Pump curves are mostly established for water. Duty (H-Q) and efficiency (η-Q) curves become close to being valid for all Newtonian fluids, while the shaft power is proportional to the density of the pumped medium.

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Centrifugal Pump

In the centrifugal pump the movement of the fluid is realized by centrifugal forces that are caused by the rotation of the impeller in the volute casing.

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Viscosity

Viscosity (also known as toughness) is a fluid characteristic due to molecular interaction by which an internal friction opposes deformation.

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Non-Newtonian Fluids

Medium- to highly viscous fluids and multi-phase systems with a high portion of the article phase can be of non-Newtonian flow characteristics.

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Newtonian Fluid

A fluid is classified as being Newtonian if it conforms to NEWTON’s friction law, i.e. if viscosity remains constant with agitation or varying shear rate and its shear rate being proportional to the velocity gradient vertical to the direction of flow. That means, that the viscosity is only affected by temperature changes.

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Vapour Pressure

Vapour pressure is the absolute pressure (also saturated steam pressure) which the vapour of a substance assumes in equilibrium with its liquid or solid phase, whereby in centrifugal pump technology only the transition between gaseous and liquid phase is of significance.

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